can lack of sunshine cause erectile dysfunction and a low libido 1

Can Lack Of Sunshine Cause Erectile Dysfunction And A Low Libido?

By Johnathan P Cumberwell

If you don’t get enough sunshine, you are likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction and a weak libido.

There are a few key reasons for this: 

  • Firstly, the sun is a life-giving force that your body and mind need in order to function optimally. This also includes sexual functions
  • Secondly, the sun enables your skin to produce vitamin D3. And you need vitamin D3 in order to produce testosterone 
  • In addition, sunshine also helps you manufacture nitric oxide and dopamine

With low testosterone, nitric oxide or dopamine, you are more likely to struggle sexually.

We will dig into the details, but let’s first understand what sunshine really is.

what exactly is sunshine

What Is Sunshine?

Energy from the sun comes to earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The term radiation simply means that the energy travels as rays, or in straight lines. 

It takes about 8 minutes for this radiation to travel from the sun to planet earth.

We experience this radiation as sunshine, which is a combination of light and heat.

This sunshine consists of three different kinds of radiation:

  • Infrared radiation 
  • Visible radiation, and 
  • Ultraviolet radiation
energy from the sun comes to earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation 1024x604 1

Infrared Radiation

You can’t see infrared radiation. It’s invisible to the human eye because it has longer wavelengths than those we can see. But although you can’t see it, you still feel it. As heat. 

In fact, all objects in the universe emit some level of infrared radiation. And for us, the most obvious source is probably the sun.

The sun gives off about half of its energy in the form of infrared radiation

Visible Radiation

Visible radiation is the portion of the electromagnetic radiation that has wavelengths that are visible to the human eye. Hence, this radiation contains colors that our eyes can see and distinguish, such as blue, green and yellow.

visible radiation of electromagnetic spectrum 1024x574 1

Let’s look at a quick example:

An apple appears green because it reflects the wavelengths we see as green, and absorbs all the other wavelengths

Why is the sky blue?

Because when the visible radiation passes through the atmosphere, clean air scatters (or spreads) blue wavelengths more than other wavelengths. Therefore the sky appears blue during the day.

Ultraviolet Radiation

The ultraviolet radiation, which is non-visible to the human eye, comes in two forms: A and B. 

The difference is the wavelength of the radiation, where UVA radiation has the longest waves.

uva and uvb wavelengths

Since UVA radiation has longer wavelengths, it is more nimble (or leaner) than UVB. It is therefore able to penetrate the atmosphere, clouds, smog and even glass. 

As a result, UVA radiation penetrates through your skin and deeper into your body than UVB radiation

Although UVA radiation is less intense than UVB radiationUVA is about 30 times more prevalent. UVA radiation also has relatively equal intensity during all daylight hours throughout the year.

UVB radiation, on the other hand, has shorter wavelengths. Therefore it only penetrates the skin’s outer layer.

It is also the main cause of sunburn.

UVB radiation cannot penetrate glass, is partially blocked by clouds, dust, air pollution and the atmosphere in general, and is typically blocked by sunscreens.

    uvb sunrays are blocked by sunscreens

    Unlike UVA radiationUVB radiation is normally only significant during the few hours of the day when the sun is around its highest point in the sky.


    Because it then has less atmosphere to get through.

    Let’s understand how sunshine enables you to produce vitamin D3.

    How Does The Sun Enable You To Produce Vitamin D3?

    Of the three different kinds of radiation from the sun, it is only UVB radiation that can help you manufacture vitamin D3.

    When the UVB sunrays land on our skin, an interesting process begins:

    how does the sun enable you to produce vitamin d3

    Firstly, a form of cholesterol (7-dehydrocholesterol) that sits in your skin, absorbs this UBV radiation. 

    With the energy the cholesterol gets from UBV, it starts to manufacture a form of vitamin D, called cholecalciferol.

    This cholecalciferol still needs to go through two transformations before it becomes vitamin D3. 

    Therefore it first travels through the bloodstream to your liver, where it’s turned into something called calcidiol 

    This then travels to your kidneys. Here it is converted into the active form of vitamin D3calcitriol

    Now you finally have vitamin D3.

    man on cliff getting sunshine

    Calcitriol is then released into your bloodstream where it can carry out the functions of vitamin D3. Such as regulating how your body uses calcium and phosphorus, etc.

    Before we move on, let’s first learn more about vitamin D3, and what purposes it serves in your body.

    What Is Vitamin D And Why Do You Need It?

    There are in fact 5 different forms of vitamin D, but the two most important ones are vitamin D2 and vitamin D3

    Research studies have demonstrated that these two D vitamins have almost identical structures, and have been reported to exhibit identical responses in the body.

    Therefore, you can think of these two D vitamins as essentially the same.

    research shows that vitamin d2 and d3 are identical

    Although there seems to be two slight differences in regards to toxicity and half-life.

    Research has indicated that vitamin D2 is potentially more toxic than D3, at very high doses.

    Also, a research study has found that the half-life life of vitamin D2 is slightly lower than that of vitamin D3. Half-life is the amount of time until half of the ‘stuff’ is no longer there. You can think of this as the amount of time the vitamin is still active.

    Where do we find these two D vitamins?

    You get vitamin D2 mostly from fungi and yeast, but research has also concluded that some plants also contain vitamin D3.

    Vitamin D3 can be obtained from foods such as fatty fish, fish liver oil, animal fats, and egg yolk.

    vitamin d3 in fatty fish

    Many dairy products (and other foods) are also fortified with vitamin D. The type of D vitamin that is normally used, is vitamin D2 because it is cheaper to produce. 

    However, it can still be difficult to get enough vitamin D2 or D3 from foods, as foods are generally not very rich in these vitamins.

    Therefore, the balance needs to be provided by the sun. Or alternatively by a vitamin D supplement.

    That said, personally I always prefer the natural source to supplements.

    Can you get too much vitamin D3 from the sun?

    No. It is practically impossible to overdose on vitamin D3 from sunlight, as your body stops making it when the level approaches sufficiency.

    it is practically impossible to overdose on vitamin d3 from sunlight

    But you can get too much vitamin D from supplements, and this can cause complications.

    What do we need vitamin D for?

    One key function of vitamin D is to increase plasma calcium and phosphate levels, which in turn are required for building and maintaining your bones.

    The maintenance of calcium levels is also required for proper functioning of muscles and tissues, vasodilatation (expansion of blood vessels), nerve transmission, and hormonal secretion. 

    Vitamin D is also essential for proper cell growth and function, and a well functioning immune system.

    Scientific studies have also demonstrated that vitamin D can suppress cancer cell growth. So although too much sun may cause skin cancer, appropriate amounts of sun can stop various cancers. 👍

    appropriate amounts of sun can stop various cancers

    At least 1,000 different genes governing virtually every tissue in the body are now thought to be regulated by vitamin D3.

    But what if you don’t get enough vitamin D?

    Severe deficits may cause Rickets or Osteomalacia, the classical vitamin D deficiency diseases. 

    Rickets, which is a disease unique to children and adolescents, is characterized by a failure of bone tissue to properly mineralize, causing softening of the bones and skeletal deformities. 

    Osteomalacia is a similar condition occurring in adults.

    Vitamin D deficiency can also cause erectile dysfunction and a weak libido, but more about that shortly.

    Some of the other issues that can arise from vitamin D deficiency are:

    vitamin d deficiency can cause rickets and osteomalacia

    Muscle pain, high blood pressure, restless sleep, multiple sclerosisosteoporosis, cancer, heart disease, metabolic syndromediabetesautoimmune diseasesarthritisinfertilityParkinson’s DiseaseAlzheimer’s Diseasechronic fatigue syndromefibromyalgia and chronic pain.


    How much sunshine do you need to produce one day’s worth of vitamin D3?

    A person with pale skin would need approximately 10-20 minutes of sunshine, to get one day’s worth of vitamin D3

    This assumes that large parts of the body are exposed, such as the upper body and legs. And also no use of sunscreen, or only sunscreen on the face.

    Which means that you could get one week’s reserves of vitamin D3 by being in the sun for about an hour and a half.

    you need 10 20 minutes of sunshine every day

    For a person whose skin is darker, the amount of time needed to produce the same amount of vitamin D3, could be 3-5 times more.

    Did you know that..

    Vitamin D deficiency has actually become a big problem around the world, and is by many health professionals called an epidemic? 

    Why are so many people vitamin D deficient?

    First of all, many people are afraid of the sun because it causes wrinkles. And because it can cause skin cancer. Therefore, a lot of people avoid the sun, cover up, or put on sunscreen.

    Secondly, many people also spend most of their time indoors. Lots of people spend almost all day inside buildings working or studying, and many also spend most of their leisure time inside.

    man working inside a building sunshine outside

    Therefore, even in sunny parts of the world like Australia, the Mediterranean, India, California, etc., a large portion of the population is vitamin D deficient.

    Research studies done on vitamin D deficiency show that in most parts of the world, including the very sunny ones, the deficiency is often as high as 30-50%. 

    This figure is normally even higher during the winter months when there is less sunshine, and also among older people.

    There are many very important reasons for why you need vitamin D. But in regards to your sexual functions, there are three very important reasons: 

    • Testosterone
    • Nitric oxide
    • Dopamine
    vitamin d deficiency is high in cities

    All these element are essential in order to function well sexually.

    So if 30-50% of the population does not have adequate levels of vitamin D, it is also fair to assume that about the same proportion of people are deficient in testosterone, nitric oxide and dopamine.

    Let’s dig into this connection between sunshine and sexual functions.

    How Does The Sun Improve Sexual Functions?

    The sun improves your health and sexual functions in several ways, but above all through these 4 very important pathways: 
    • The sun is a life-giving force that is simply essential for your overall health
    • Sunshine helps your body produce testosterone
    • Sunshine improves your capacity to produce nitric oxide
    • Sunshine facilitates your production of dopamine
    how does the sun improve sexual functions

    Sunshine Is A Life-giving Force

    The sun is a life-giving force. It enables life. If the sun stopped shining, life on planet earth would very quickly vanish. 

    Not only does the sun enable life, but it makes life thrive. Sun is 100% essential, either directly, or indirectly for all life on our planet.

    It is also essential for you, for your life and for your happiness.

    Research has demonstrated that sunshine can improve your mood, make you happy, give you energy, cure many illnesses and ailments, cure cancers, increase fertility, and much more.

    But above all, sunshine is required for basic processes in your body to function optimally, such as cell function, bloodflow, heart function, brain function, etc.

    You need sunshine to thrive!

    sunshine can improve your mood and make you happy

    Sunshine Enables You To Produce Testosterone

    Many men on planet earth have low testosterone. Many men on planet earth are also vitamin D deficient.

    There is a connection?


    Then what is the link between sunshine, vitamin D and testosterone?

    As we already know, UVB radiation helps you produce vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 (or D2) in turn, is an essential building material needed to create testosterone. 

    You need avocados to make guacamole. And you need vitamin D to make testosterone. 😊

    uvb radiation enables you to produce vitamin d3

    Should you happen to be vitamin D deficient, you are also likely to be testosterone deficient.

    And what happens when you are testosterone deficient..?

    Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone, and as such governs and supports anything sexual that happens in your body.

    With lots of testosterone, you are likely to function very well sexually. 👍

    With little testosterone, you are likely to have a poor libido and struggle with erectile dysfunction. 🙄

    If you want to learn how to increase testosterone naturally, you can read this guide.

    By the way..

    This connection between UVB and testosterone is not news.

    sunshine enables you to produce testosterone

    It turns out that the link between UVB radiation and testosterone has been known for decades. 

    In 1939, a scientist did an interesting experiment

    Firstly, he measured the levels of circulating testosterone in a group of men. Then he exposed their various body parts to UVB radiation. And then he re-measured their circulating testosterone levels. 

    After five days of chest exposure sufficient to cause reddening, circulating testosterone increased by 120% in the participants. 

    And then he also exposed their genitals to UVB radiation.

    After the genital area had also been exposed, testosterone levels increased by 200% from baseline levels. 😯

    image from rawpixel id 2301127 jpeg min 1 1024x683 1

    And after eight days without additional UVB exposure, the testosterone returned to initial levels.


    Many men would do almost anything in order to double their testosterone levels in 5 days!

    But there is (in most cases) no need for costly testosterone therapy, needles, injections or pills. 

    You can simply sunbathe naked. And it’s totally free! 😉

    But there is even better news!

    We don’t have to rely on just this one experiment performed in 1939. Several other research studies have been done since. You find some of them here and here.

    sunbathing naked can increase testosterone

    Research studies have investigated the relationship between vitamin D levels and testosterone levels in men, and found that men with high levels of vitamin D normally also have more testosterone.

    Other research has reported a seasonal pattern, with both vitamin D and testosterone levels bottoming at the end of the winter, and peaking at the end of the summer.

    Research has also looked at the effect of taking a vitamin D supplement on testosterone levels. The study found that this can increase testosterone by 20-25%, in testosterone deficient men.

    But vitamin D also helps you produce another element that is essential in order for you to get and maintain strong erections:

    Nitric oxide.

    vitamin d supplement for testosterone

    Sunshine Makes You Produce More Nitric Oxide

    Nitric oxide is an element that you need in order for your penis to go from flaccid to erect. 

    This nitric oxide opens up the blood vessels in your penis, so that blood can flow into your penis and make it hard.

    If you don’t produce enough nitric oxide, you will find it more or less impossible to get erections.

    So how does sunshine enter the picture?

    Your nitric oxide is produced by an enzyme called nitric oxide synthase. This enzyme sits in your endothelium, which is a layer of cells on the inner walls of your blood vessels.

    Studies has shown that nitric oxide synthase needs vitamin D in order to manufacture nitric oxide.

    sunshine makes you produce more nitric oxide

    In other words, vitamin D is one of the ingredients that are necessary to create this gas.

    Therefore, if you are vitamin D deficient, not only is your testosterone likely to suffer, but your nitric oxide production as well.

    But there is more:

    Sunshine helps you produce yet another element that is key to your sexual functions:


    Sunshine Makes You Produce More Dopamine

    Dopamine is an element many associate with our sinful cravings like chocolate, drugs and sex.

    dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain

    Which is true..

    But dopamine is much more than this. For instance, you need a healthy dopamine production in order to have a sex drive.

    And you also need the same in order to get an erection. Therefore, dopamine is essential in order to function well sexually.

    Research studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3 enhances dopamine production. Meaning, in the presence of vitamin D3, your body produce more dopamine.

    Neuroscientific studies have also found that vitamind D3 can upregulate a gene that improves dopamine synthesis.

    Therefore, with healthy amounts of vitamin D3 (calcitriol), you are probably more likely to also have a healthy production of dopamine.

    sunshine makes you produce more dopamine 1024x719 1

    Also studies on rats have demonstrated that vitamin D protects your dopamine reward system.

    And the flipside..

    With little vitamin D3 (or D2), you are more likely to have an inferior production of dopamine.

    So not only does the sun help you produce testosterone and nitric oxide, it also help you produce dopamine.

    In other words, the sun is instrumental in helping you manufacture three of the most important ingredients you need in order to function well sexually.

    Let’s move on.

    Let me tell you about my experience with vitamin D deficiency, and also about my sunshine epiphany.

    sun breaking through clouds

    My Experience With Sunshine, Erectile Dysfunction And Libido

    I am fairly convinced that I have been vitamin D deficient for many, many years. And particularly after I started working. 

    Because when I started working, I spent practically all my time inside buildings. I worked from early morning until very late. Therefore when the sun shone, I was behind glass and inside 4 walls.

    Which means.. 

    That I didn’t see much of the sun during the hours of the day when UVB radiation was showering town. UVB is strongest when the sun is at its highest point during the day.

    All I got was a few minutes of UBV on my face, those sunny days I went outside to buy my lunch.

    man at work until late night 1

    Another reason why I am convinced I must have been vitamin D deficient, is that I always wore sunscreen if I went outside on a sunny day (well not when going to buy lunch). 

    So if I went outside on a weekend or holiday, I always covered up with sunscreen. Full body.


    Because I had been told that I could get skin cancer if I was not careful with the sun. And that putting on sunscreen was the way to avoid getting skin cancer. 

    So this sunscreen significantly reduced the amount of UVB radiation I absorbed. 

    And the third reason I am convinced I was deficient in vitamin D, is because I didn’t take any vitamin D supplements. 

    vitamin d supplement bottle e1591981931104

    Since I didn’t get much vitamin D from the sun or supplements, pretty much all my vitamin D intake came from the foods that I ate. 

    My diet at the time was a normal western diet, consisting of lots of bread, cereal and meat. 

    Although this food contains some vitamin D, it was far from enough. It is practically impossible to obtain adequate levels of vitamin D from this diet. Actually it’s next to impossible from any normal diet. 

    Therefore, I am convinced that for many years of my life, I have been severely vitamin D deficient.  

    I don’t know if any fatigue I had, restless sleep or muscle pains was potentially caused by vitamin D deficiency. But it’s possible..

    But what I do know, is that when I got a very solid dose of sunshine, something interesting happened.

    sunshine makes my body and mind wake up

    It was like my body and mind woke up! I got more energy and I felt more alive. Not only that, something happened to my libido as well. 😊

    Let me tell you about my sunshine epiphany.

    My Sunshine Epiphany

    A few years ago, I took a week off work and went on a hiking vacation in the mountains of southern Europe. We were a group of about 25 people. 

    By the way, at this time I struggled with severe erectile dysfunction. 😤

    Every day, we hiked about 20 km and spent all day outside in wonderful sunshine, and enjoying the amazing scenery.

    hiking trip in the mountains

    For me, this was a break from work. A time to relax, eat well, sleep well, be with a fun people and get fresh air.

    Sex was not on my mind at all.

    But then, towards the middle of the trip, something funny happened..

    As I was hiking up the mountains, I started getting horny. I started thinking about sex. And then I started having sexual fantasies! 😆

    I remember looking at a woman in the group.. I got this rush of intense sexual desire. I wanted her right there and then! This was not normal! This just never happened!

    A strange place for sexual fantasies, no? The mountains..?

    i started thinking about sex in the mountains

    And sometimes when I had these sexual thoughts, I got erections!

    So from time to time, I hiked the mountains with an erection in my pants! 🤭

    This was highly, highly unusual for me. At this point in my life, I barely ever got erections. It just didn’t happen.  

    As the trip came towards the end, this sexual ‘rebirth’ became more and more persistent. My libido became so strong, it made it difficult to fully enjoy the beautiful mountains. 

    My attention to women changed! And..

    I had an almost constant tingling sensation in my genitals. And when got an erection, it normally lasted for an unusually long time. 😊

    woman on hiking trip

    I felt super happy and upbeat about being horny, but didn’t think much of it at the time. I assumed it was just random as my libido would go up and down anyways.

    But I also need to mention this:

    During this week, I also relaxed totally, ate and drank well, got fresh air, got exerciseslept well, and abstained from any sexual activity. All of which will normally contribute to put a mind and body in balance, which also helps improve sexual health. 

    That said, I am nonetheless convinced the sunshine played a very major role. 


    The very same thing happened again on another sunny hiking vacation. 

    Now I started connecting the dots. 

    sunny hiking vacation in mountains

    Was there something about the sun that got me sexed up? 

    This time, I also went on a week-long activity-filled vacation in a sunny and temperate part of the world. 

    And I also struggled with severe ED, and a more or less non-existent libido, during this time.

    After about three full days of being active in the sunshine, I was again ‘attacked’ by sexual thoughts and desires. 😊 

    Out of seemingly nowhere, I would think about sex, have sexual fantasies, and be much more attentive to the females in my surroundings.

    And as these fantasies played out in my mind, I all of a sudden started getting erections. Again highly unusual. 😆

    i had sexual fantasies in the mountains

    This got stronger and stronger as the days passed. And in the end, my libido had become unrecognizably strong. 

    What was going on? This was so not normal! This just never happened when I was living my city life!

    By now I realized that there had to be something about these vacations.

    There was something about these vacations that made my sexual functions jump back to life. 

    Something about these vacations got my sexual functions fired up again! 

    But what was it?

    One common factor on these vacations was sunshine.

    sunshine and sexual desire

    I was wondering if the sun could possibly have something to do with it? Was there a link between the sun and my happy libido? And between the sun and all of a sudden getting erections again? 

    It turns out that there is indeed a link. Actually, there are more than one. And as we already know, these links are testosterone, the health promoting effects from sunshine, nitric oxide and dopamine.


    Given what I have learned about sunshine, what is my approach to sunshine today?

    What Is My Approach To Sunshine Today

    Because I now realize how important sunshine is for my health, and to my sexual health, I have adapted my life to the sun. ☀️

    i have adapted my life to the sun

    Today, I try to get sunshine every day.

    Well, I try to get about a half-hour of sunshine every day, on average. This means that I sometimes get an hour, and sometimes I get nothing. But on average, a half hour every day.

    That was easier said than done when I lived in areas with little sunshine.

    But I have now moved to a part of the world where it’s possible to get sunshine almost every day.

    That’s how important the sun is to me. 😊

    And after consistently getting adequate sunshine every day, I can contest that I feel overall better, healthier, I am happier, I have more energy and I function even better sexually than I did before. 

    Which takes me to the next logical question:

    with sunshine i am happier and i have more energy

    How can you get enough as well? What if you work inside a building all day, or live far north (or south) where there is little sun? What can you do?

    How Can You Ensure You Get Enough Sunshine?

    First off: For many people, it is very difficult to get enough sunshine. This may be the case for you as well.

    You may have a demanding job that keeps you inside for most of the day. Or you may live in a part of the world where there is little sunshine, particularly in the winter months.

    So you may have a challenge on your hands. 

    But let’s see if we can still find a way that can help you out.

    First of all, you could use your lunch breaks. Well if you have lunch breaks. 

    people having lunch outside in the sun

    If you work inside, how about stepping outside during your lunch breaks when it’s sunny? If you could sit in the sun, with rolled up sleeves for about 30 minutes, you would at least get some sunshine. If you could expose even more than your head and arms, that would be even better.

    You could also go outside on weekends. Assuming you have your weekends free, you could be outside on sunny days, training, working in the garden, walking, or similar. 

    If you could be outside without a shirt, perhaps even in shorts, for about an hour, that could be great.

    And also, you could perhaps go away on a sunny vacation every now and then? 

    If you are able to go on a long weekend trip (for instance) to a sunny place, this could go a long way to help you produce vitamin D3. Since your body can store the vitamin D3 you produce for at least 2-3 weeks, this sun exposure could carry you for a decent amount of time.

    Let’s look at the sum of all this:

    people on sunny beach vacation
    • Let’s say 2-3 days a week of 30 minutes of sun during your lunch break
    • Let’s say 1 hour of sunshine during the weekend
    • And let’s say a sunny vacation every 3-4 months

    This should take you pretty far in getting enough sunshine to produce the vitamin D3 you need.

    Here are some things to keep in mind however:

    Vitamin D3 is produced by UVB radiation only. These sunrays are available when the sun is high in the sky. So you normally don’t get much of it in the mornings or in the evenings.

    You also don’t get much UVB in the winter, when the sun is low on the sky.

    Also, UVB sunrays cannot penetrate glass, pollution, skies, etc.

    snowy winter landscape with sun

    So make sure you are outside, where pollution is not high, when the sun is clear from skies, etc.

    But what if you just can’t get enough sunshine?

    There is a plan B: Vitamin D supplements. 

    These can be very useful when you don’t get enough sunshine. These vitamins have been scientifically proven to improve circulating vitamin D levels.

    You can purchase a good vitamin D supplement here.

    I myself take a vitamin D supplement in periods where I don’t get enough sunshine, which at the moment is only in the winter months.

    That said, I always prefer sun to supplements, if possible.

    vitamin d supplements can help cure erectile dysfunction

    Final Words About Sunshine

    Sunshine is energy that sustains all life on planet earth, directly or indirectly. This also applies to you and me.

    You need sunshine. You need sunshine to thrive.

    And you also need sunshine in order to function well sexually. There are a number of reasons for this, and a key reason is that sunshine enables you to produce testosterone.

    You also need sunshine to maintain overall good health, and to produce other essential ingredients in the sexual process, such as nitric oxide and dopamine.

    If you are sunshine deficient, you are also likely to be deficient in testosterone, nitric oxide and dopamine.

    kids playing on sunny beach

    And should you be sunshine deficient, there are simple actions you can take to get more. And if you cannot get enough, you can move to plan B, which is to take a vitamin D supplement. 

    Happy sunbathing! 😎

    And if you want to learn more about how to overcome ED naturally, you can read this guide.

    Research Studies

    Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov. 89(11):5387-91.

    Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167:1730-7.

    Barbonetti A, Vassallo MRC, Felzani G, Francavilla S, Francavilla F. Association between 25(OH)-vitamin D and testosterone levels: Evidence from men with chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2016 May; 39(3): 246–252. doi: 10.1179/2045772315Y.0000000050.

    research study on sunshine and erectile dysfunction

    Basat S, Sivritepe R, Ortaboz D, Sevim Çalık E, Küçük EV, Şimşek B, Atay S, Çalışgan A. The relationship between vitamin D level and erectile dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aging Male. 2018 Jun;21(2):111-115. DOI: 10.1080/13685538.2017.1379488. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

    Black LJ, Lucas RM, Sherriff JL, Björn LO, Bornman JF. In Pursuit of Vitamin D in Plants. Nutrients. 2017 Feb; 9(2): 136. Published online 2017 Feb 13. doi: 10.3390/nu9020136.

    Bogh MK, Gullstrand J, Svensson A, Ljunggren B, Dorkhan M. Narrowband UVB three times a week more effective in treating vitamin D deficiency than 1600 IU oral vitamin D(3) /day: a randomized clinical trial. Br J Dermatol. 2012 May 25.

    Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Wan Ngah WZ. Vitamin D is significantly associated with total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Malaysian men. Aging Male. 2015 Sep;18(3):175-9. doi: 10.3109/13685538.2015.1034686.

    Chiu KC, Chu A, Go VL, Saad MF. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820-5.

    lab experiment uvb radiation and testosterone e1592139725293

    Daly RM, Gagnon C, Lu ZX, Magliano DJ, Dunstan DW, Sikaris KA, Zimmet PZ, Ebeling PR, Shaw JE. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Jul; 77(1):26-35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04320.

    Davis CD, Dwyer JT. The ‘sunshine vitamin’: benefits beyond bone? J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99:1563-5.

    Freedman DM, Looker AC, Chang S-C, Graubard BI. Prospective study of serum vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99:1594-602.

    Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Young JF. Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med. 1990 Nov. 19(6):614-22.

    Greene-Finestone LS, Berger C, de Groh M, Hanley DA, Hidiroglou N, Sarafin K, Poliquin S, Krieger J, Richards JB, Goltzman D; CaMos Research Group. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Canadian adults: biological, environmental, and behavioral correlates. Osteoporos Int. 2011 May; 22(5):1389-99. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1362-7.

    Hammoud AO, Meikle AW, Peterson CM, Stanford J, Gibson M, Carrell DT. Association of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels with semen and hormonal parameters. Asian J Androl. 2012 Nov; 14(6):855-9. DOI: 10.1038/aja.2012.77.

    researcher analyzing link between vitamin d and testosterone

    Holick MF. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health. Anticancer Res. 2016 Mar;36(3):1345-56.

    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad H, Weaver CM. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:1911-30.

    Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 87(4):1080S-6S.

    Holick MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:266-281. July 19, 2007. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra070553.

    Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar; 79(3):362-71.

    Holliman G, Lowe D, Cohen H, Felton S, Raj K. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide:A multi-cell and multi-donor analysis. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 11105. Published online 2017 Sep 11. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-11567-5.

    Jeon SM, Shin EA. Exploring vitamin D metabolism and function in cancer. Exp Mol Med. 2018 Apr 16;50(4):20. doi: 10.1038/s12276-018-0038-9.

    testosterone analysis

    Jones KS, Assar S, Harnpanich D, Bouillon R, Lambrechts D, Prentice A, Schoenmakers I. 25(OH)D2 Half-Life Is Shorter Than 25(OH)D3 Half-Life and Is Influenced by DBP Concentration and Genotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Sep;99(9):3373-81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1714. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

    Lee DM, Tajar A, Pye SR, Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, Bouillon R, O’Neill TW, Bartfai G, Casanueva FF, Finn JD, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Huhtaniemi IT, Kula K, Lean ME, Pendleton N, Punab M, Wu FC; EMAS study group. Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Jan;166(1):77-85. doi: 10.1530/EJE-11-0743.

    Lerchbaum E, Pilz S, Boehm BO, Grammer TB, Obermayer-Pietsch B, März W. Combination of low free testosterone and low vitamin D predicts mortality in older men referred for coronary angiography. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Sep; 77(3):475-83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04371

    Lindqvist PG, Epstein E, Landin-Olsson M, Ingvar C, Nielsen K, Stenbeck M, Olsson H. Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2014, 276; 77-86.

    Looker AC, Pfeiffer CM, Lacher DA, Schleicher RL, Picciano MF, Yetley EA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:1519-27.

    lab experiment on rats testosterone and vitamin d

    Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Kupisz-Urbańska M, Łukaszkiewicz J, Płudowski P, Jones G. Vitamin D Toxicity–A Clinical Perspective. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9: 550. Published online 2018 Sep 20. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00550.

    Mead MN. Benefits of Sunlight: A Bright Spot for Human Health. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Apr; 116(4): A160–A167. doi: 10.1289/ehp.116-a160.

    Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Saag K. Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50:72-7.

    Metropolis Healthcare Limited. 75% of Indians suffer vitamin deficiency: Study. 18th Oct 2015.

    Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA 2006; 296:2832-8.

    Myerson A, Neustadt R. Influence of Ultraviolet Irradiation upon Excretion of Sex Hormones In the Male. Endocrinology:25; 7, 1939.

    scientific research on adrenaline 1

    Nimptsch K, Platz EA, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Association between plasma 25‐OH vitaminD and testosterone levels in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Jul; 77(1):106-12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04332.

    Palacios C, Gonzalez L. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Oct; 144PA: 138–145. Published online 2013 Nov 12. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003.

    Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, Kuhn J, Dreier J, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Wehr E, Zittermann A. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar; 43(3):223-5. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854.

    Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, Del Valle HB. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. DOI:

    Sedaghat K, Yousefian Z, Vafaei AA, Rashidy-Pour A, Parsaei H, Khaleghian A, Choobdar S. Mesolimbic Dopamine System and Its Modulation by Vitamin D in a Chronic Mild Stress Model of Depression in the Rat. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jan 1;356:156-169. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.08.020. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

    Sim MY, Kim SH, Kim KM. Seasonal Variations and Correlations between Vitamin D and Total Testosterone Levels. Korean J Fam Med. 2017 Sep; 38(5): 270–275. Published online 2017 Sep 22. doi: 10.4082/kjfm.2017.38.5.270.

    doctor investigating uvb sunrays impact on sexual functions

    Sorenson M, Grant WB.Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to erectile dysfunction? Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Apr 1;4(2):128-36. DOI: 10.4161/derm.20361.

    Sulzer D, Maidment NT, Rayport S. Amphetamine and Other Weak Bases Act to Promote Reverse Transport of Dopamine in Ventral Midbrain Neurons. J Neurochem. 1993 Feb;60(2):527-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1993.tb03181.x.

    Tak YJ, Lee JG, Kim YJ, Park NC, Kim SS, Lee S, Cho BM, Kong EH, Jung DW, Yi YH. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Testosterone Deficiency in Middle-Aged Korean Men: A Cross-Sectional Study. Asian J Androl . Mar-Apr 2015;17(2):324-8. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.142137.

    Talib RA, Khalafalla K, Cangüven Ö. The role of vitamin D supplementation on erectile function. Turk J Urol. 2017 Jun;43(2):105-111. DOI: 10.5152/tud.2017.76032. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

    Tare M, Emmett SJ, Coleman HA, Skordilis C, Eyles DW, Morley R, Parkington HC. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with impaired vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function and hypertension in young rats. J Physiol. 2011 Oct 1; 589(Pt 19):4777-86. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.214726.

    research lab erectile dysfunction e1569219684334

    Thomas GN et al. Vitamin D levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. Diabetes Care 2012 May; 35(5):1158-64.

    Trinko JR, Land BB, Solecki WB, Wickham RJ, Tellez LA, Maldonado-Aviles J, de Araujo IE, Addy NI, DiLeone RJ. Vitamin D3: A Role in Dopamine Circuit Regulation, Diet-Induced Obesity, and Drug Consumption. eNeuro. 2016 May-Jun; 3(3): ENEURO.0122-15.2016.

    Published online 2016 May 19. Prepublished online 2016 May 6. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0122-15.2016.

    Wang N, Han B2, Li Q3, Chen Y4, Chen Y5, Xia F6, Lin D7, Jensen MD8, Lu Y9. Vitamin D is associated with testosterone and hypogonadism in Chinese men: Results from a cross-sectional SPECT-China study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015 Jul 16; 13:74. DOI: 10.1186/s12958-015-0068-2.

    Wehr E, Pilz S, Boehm BO, März W, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Association of vitamin D status with serum androgen levels in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Aug; 73(2):243-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03777.

    Wolpowitz D, Gilchrest BA. The vitamin D questions: how much do you need and how should you get it? J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54:301-17.

    Yoon I, Kripke D F, Elliott J A, Youngstedt S D. Luteinizing hormone following light exposure in healthy young men. Neuroscience Letters 341 (2003) 25–28.